Joseph Hogan: 0000-0001-6756-8707




Multi-tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) is an outgrowth of Response to Intervention (RtI). The various systems of support for students and school communities provided through these programs are integral to modern education and embedded in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) of 2004. While there are many benefits to the implementation of MTSS and RtI, there are various obstacles that can hinder successful intervention programs. The absence of consensus across districts and states with respect to program development and implementation creates confusion. This article addresses considerations and concerns related to MTSS and RtI. Discussed are underlying principles, challenges to effective implementation, expertise and training of teachers, and usage for classification for special education services. The roles of general and special education teachers, administrators, and university preparation programs are examined, and recommendations provided.



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