Date of Award


Degree Type


Embargo Date


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Child and Family Studies


Ambika Krishnakumar


adolescent smoking, cognition, parenting practices, socio-cultural influences

Subject Categories

Family, Life Course, and Society


The etiology of smoking behaviors involves the interplay among multiple systems at the cultural, familial, and personal levels, but few investigations have explored the effects of multiple environments on adolescent smoking behaviors. Survey data were collected from 658 parent-child dyads of Chinese adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years from Jiande, Zhejiang province in mainland China. Using data from multiple informants, the direct and indirect roles of socio-cultural influences, parenting strategies, smoking-specific parenting behaviors, and smoking-related cognitions on adolescent smoking behaviors were examined. Results indicated that smoking-related cultural values, extended family members smoking, and parental psychological control had direct effects on Chinese adolescents smoking behaviors. Smoking-related cultural values, parent smoking, and health-related values had indirect effects on adolescent smoking behaviors through smoking-related cognitions. Psychological control, frequency of communication about smoking, disapproval of adolescent smoking, and home rules against smoking indirectly influenced adolescent smoking behaviors through smoking-related cognitions. A sub-analysis of 496 nonsmoking adolescents revealed similar pathways linking socio-cultural and parenting influences on adolescent intention to smoke. The findings from this study provide valuable information for the development of prevention and intervention programs targeting adolescent smoking.


Open Access