Parental warmth, control, and involvement in schooling in relation to Korean American adolescents' academic achievement

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Child and Family Studies


Mellisa A. Clawson


Adolescents, Control, Schooling, Parent involvement, Korean-American, Academic achievement

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Sociology


The purpose of this study was to examine the way in which Korean American adolescents' perceptions of parental warmth, control, and involvement in schooling related to their academic achievement. A sample of 245 students were administered the mother and father versions of the Child Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire (Child PARQ/Control: Rohner, 1991) and the Family Information Sheet (FIS: Rohner, 1991). GPA was assessed either from school records or report of the adolescents themselves. The PARQ/Control scores were used in two ways: (1) to measure perceived parental acceptance and control respectively, and (2) to create categories of parenting style following Baumrind's typology. The study found that a majority of Korean American adolescents perceived their mothers and fathers as warm, lax controlling, and highly involved in schooling. No significant differences in perceived maternal and paternal parenting behaviors were found. Seventy-four percent of both perceived maternal and paternal parenting style did not fit into any of Baumrind's parenting types. Perceived paternal authoritative style had a positive effect on adolescents' GPA. By assessing each dimensions of parenting in relation to adolescents' GPA, this study confirmed a positive relationship between perceived parental acceptance and adolescents' GPA. Moreover, this study revealed moderator effect of maternal control on the relation between maternal warmth and adolescents'GPA. Perceived parental involvement in schooling mediated the impact of parental warmth x control on adolescents' GPA. Lastly, multiple regression revealed that after controlling for demographic variables, about 15% of the variance in adolescents' GPA was explained by three principal variables: perceived paternal involvement in schooling, maternal acceptance, and family acculturation. They study suggests that applying Baumrind's parenting typology across sociocultural contexts at least in the context of Korean Americans must be done cautiously. In fact, this study emphasizes the importance of assessing both maternal and paternal warmth and control separately in relation to childreln's outcome, rather than attempting to employ typological analyses of parenting style.


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