Document Type





Jordan, Jordanians, PWDDs, Persons with developmental disabilities, inclusion, disability awareness, socio-economic status, social attitudes




Education Policy | Inequality and Stratification | Public Health | Social Policy | Social Psychology and Interaction


Background: The diagnosis and reported rates of persons with developmental disabilities (PWDDs) in Jordan is steadily increasing. Although initiatives have been implemented to improve the lives of PWDDs, attitudes towards PWDDs hinder successful inclusion in the Jordanian society.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between Jordanians socio-economic status and attitudes towards persons with developmental disabilities: autism, blindness, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome and muscular dystrophy.

Methods: Jordanians (N=259), ages 18-65 were recruited for this convergent parallel, mixed-methods study. Participants completed the modified 40-item Community Living Attitude Scale-developmental disability (CLAS-DD) and the modified Intellectual Disability Literacy Scale consisting of five vignettes, representing each developmental disability. Of the 259 participants, 32 were randomly selected for the qualitative phase of this study

Results: A one-way ANOVA was used to analyze CLAS-DD, results revealed consistent significance between all subscales and income levels. For instance, sheltering scores revealed significance between income levels >800 (Mdn= 4.0) and <180 (Mdn = 4.57) (p= 0.006). Further, using A Welch test, IDLS findings showed differences of relationship between social distance and income level. The qualitative study confirmed the quantitative analysis; however, attitude vary depending by type of contact with persons with developmental disabilities.

Conclusions: Few empirical studies related to PWDDs exist in Jordan. This foundation work can be utilized by the social, educational and public health sectors to understand determinants influencing attitudes towards persons with disabilities, prior to designing initiatives. Based on the findings, there is potential for inclusion of PWDDs in Jordan, with strategically designed disability awareness initiatives.



Additional Information

ThinkIR: The University of Louisville's Institutional Repository © 2018

table 1 v3.pdf (69 kB)
Table 1. Comparison of CLAS attitude scores among different income levels

table 2.pdf (348 kB)
Table 2. Comparison of IDLS social distance for DD among different income levels using one-way ANOVA

table 3.pdf (349 kB)
Table 3. Characteristics of focus group participants