We consider particle systems that are perturbations of the voter model and show that when space and time are rescaled the system converges to a solution of a reaction diffusion equation in dimensions d > 3. Combining this result with properties of the PDE, some methods arising from a low density super-Brownian limit theorem, and a block construction, we give general, and often asymptotically sharp, conditions for the existence of non-trivial stationary distributions, and for extinction of one type. As applications, we describe the phase diagrams of three systems when the parameters are close to the voter model: (i) a stochastic spatial Lotka-Volterra model of Neuhauser and Pacala, (ii) a model of the evolution of cooperation of Ohtsuki, Hauert, Lieberman, and Nowak, and (iii) a continuous time version of the non-linear voter model of Molofsky, Durrett, Dushoff, Griffeath, and Levin. The first application confirms a conjecture of Cox and Perkins and the second confirms a conjecture of Ohtsuki et al in the context of certain infinite graphs. An important feature of our general results is that they do not require the process to be attractive.
Cox, J. Theodore; Durrett, Richard; and Perkins, Edwin A., "Voter Model Perturbations and Reaction Diffusion Equations" (2011). Mathematics Faculty Scholarship. 43.
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