Resistance to the adoption of family planning in Java and Bali, Indonesia

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Instructional Design, Development and Evaluation


Philip L. Doughty


contraceptive use

Subject Categories

Education | Public Health | Social Work


As the family planning program in Java and Bali, Indonesia reached a high level of contraceptive use, the program goals shifted from a quantitative emphasis such as achieving a targeted number of contraceptive users to qualitative accentuation such as improving the quality of contraceptive practice. The analysis of contraceptive use dynamics especially discontinuation, and analysis of nonuse, therefore, becomes a very important issue.

This study was based on the 1991 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) data, especially in the provinces of Java and Bali. The primary purpose was to analyze the factors influencing resistance to the adoption of family planning in Java and Bali, Indonesia. More specifically, the purpose was to identify reasons for resistance as well as demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of both kinds of resistance: discontinuation and nonuse.

Using mainly life table and descriptive statistics as methods of analysis, this study indicated that the reasons for discontinuation were different from the reasons for nonuse (not intending to use a method). Certain demographic characteristics such as residence, age, and parity were good predictors for both discontinuation rate and reasons for discontinuation. Furthermore, these characteristics were also good predictors for nonuse and reasons for not intending to use.

Education and occupation were also associated with the discontinuation rate. Greater education attainment was associated with high discontinuation rate. Women who worked in agricultural sectors and presumably resided in rural areas had a lower discontinuation rate than women in other occupations. This finding does not support Rogers' contention (1983) that discontinuers are characterized by greater traditionalism that is typical in rural areas. Women's education, women's occupation and exposure to television were also associated with reasons for not intending to use a method.

This study provided some recommendations for family planning policy makers, human resource, training, and information systems policy makers, and future researchers. The recommendations include supplying medical backup support for acceptors, providing training for medical personnel on conducting low-cost efficient medical examinations, providing IUD insertion training for medical personnel, and conducting a contraceptive counseling and motivational campaign that includes educative information.


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