Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Political Science


Seth Jolly


1325;Gender;Military;Peacekeeping;Security;United Nations

Subject Categories

International Relations | Political Science | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Since UNSCR 1325 was introduced in 2000, 105 countries have adopted National Action Plans (NAPs) for the purpose of implementing UNSCR 1325 at the domestic level. Each NAP varies widely in content as does the successfulness of their implementation. I seek to explain why states comply with a non-mandated UN Security Council resolution. I ask what factors contribute to successful implementation and analyze how these factors affect the outcome of participation of women in UN peace operations. To do so, I conduct comparative case studies and analyze the content of selected case countries’ NAPs. Additionally, I operationalize Borzel’s pull-and-push model of compliance for each selected case to examine how the logic of consequences and the logic of appropriateness work together to influence the case study countries. I conclude by evaluating the change in women’s participation among each of the respective country’s UN peacekeeping personnel contributions following their NAP adoption and discuss the implications in each case. Overall, this project finds that compliance with UNSCR 1325 results in increased participation of women in UN peace operations in the case study countries.


Open Access