Examining the relationship between treatment integrity and student outcomes: A comparison of performance feedback, goal setting and negative reinforcement procedures with teachers

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling and Human Services


Brian K. Martens


Treatment integrity, Performance feedback, Goal setting, Negative reinforcement

Subject Categories

Special Education and Teaching


The current study examined the extent to which treatment integrity was increased and maintained for four teachers in their special education classroom settings as a result of goal setting, performance feedback and negative reinforcement. Four teachers were trained to implement a behavioral intervention plan in order to address problem behavior exhibited by a student in their respective special education classrooms. In one condition four teachers set a goal for student behavior and received daily written feedback about their respective student's performance (Goal Setting/Performance Feedback). In the second condition, the same teachers received daily written feedback about student progress as well as their own accuracy in implementing an intervention, and were be able to avoid meeting with a consultant to practice missed steps by implementing the intervention with 100% integrity (Performance Feedback/Negative Reinforcement). Treatment integrity increased for all four teachers in the Performance Feedback/Negative reinforcement condition with gains maintaining over time. Similar results were not consistently found in the Goal Setting/Performance Feedback condition. Results revealed a significant negative correlation between treatment integrity and student behavior for three teacher-student dyads. Implications for these findings as well as directions for future research are discussed.


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