Carrying forward Uses and Grat 2.0: A study of new gratifications for F2P games based on APEX Legends

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Media Studies


Nicholas Bowman

Subject Categories

Communication | Social and Behavioral Sciences


This study employed a Uses and Gratifications (U&G) theoretical framework (MAIN model) to investigate the effects of virtual items in free-to-play (F2P) games on players' satisfaction. Additionally, this study tried to investigate extra satisfaction that players get in the process of consuming virtual items. A mixed-method survey in China with a sample size of 265 participants was utilized to test the research questions. The findings of the study revealed significant variations in satisfaction related to personalization and sociality level between free players and paying players, and the degree was positively correlated with the in-game spending level. In addition, one satisfaction not included in prior research on video games—superiority—was found through qualitative data analysis. Keywords: Virtual items, free-to-play, purchase, Uses and gratifications (U&G)


Open Access

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