Date of Award

Spring 5-15-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Human Development and Family Science


Jung, Eunjoo


closeness to parents, global self-esteem, moderation analysis, natural mentoring relationship, secondary data analysis

Subject Categories

Education | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Theories suggest that relationships play an important role in self-esteem. Close relationships with parents during adolescence revealed direct and long-term effects on self-esteem. The past research demonstrated that a natural mentor significantly positively affected adolescents' phycological outcomes. Whether it directly influences psychological well-being or is a protective factor for at-risk youths, a greater likelihood of favorable outcomes was demonstrated when adolescents are close to their parents or have natural mentoring relationships. However, there has been a gap in the literature about the moderating role of the natural mentoring relationships (NMRs) between closeness to parents and children's global self-esteem. To better understand how different relationships affect youth's self-esteem, the current study addressed this gap by using The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health to investigate the moderating role of natural mentoring relationships and the characteristics (duration of relationship and closeness to mentor). The results showed favorable outcomes. Results replicated previous findings in the significant correlation between closeness to parents and the natural mentoring relationship on self-esteem. In the relationship between closeness to parents during adolescence and global self-esteem in adulthood, having a natural mentor predicted more favorable outcomes in global self-esteem with closeness to mother. Further analyses did not find significant moderating effects of closeness to mentor and duration of mentorship. Thus, the results emphasized the importance of close relationships during adolescence self-esteem development—especially having natural mentoring relationships.

Keywords: natural mentoring relationship, closeness to parents, global self-esteem, moderation analysis, secondary data analysis


Open Access



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