Date of Award

Spring 5-15-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




Antshel, Kevin M.


ADHD, Asian American, Asian Indian, help-seeking, parents

Subject Categories

Clinical Psychology | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Background: Pediatric attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent, impairing disorder with significant public health burden. Unfortunately, there is considerable delay to treatment and a low rate of lifetime treatment contact for individuals with ADHD, especially among ethnic minorities. The Asian Indian American (AIA) population, one of the fastest growing minority populations in the United States, has been ignored completely in ADHD help-seeking research. To fill this void, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) framework was used to examine how attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control affect help-seeking intentions for ADHD in AIAs. Method: 191 parents (53% AIA) of children aged 5-12 years at risk for ADHD yet who have not sought treatment for their child's elevated ADHD symptoms, were recruited from advertising on social media websites and snowball methods. Parents completed an online survey to assess their (a) recognition of ADHD, (b) knowledge of ADHD etiology, (c) attitudes towards ADHD treatment, (d) subjective norms regarding ADHD treatment, (e) perceived control over their ADHD help-seeking behavior, and (f) intention to seek help for their child's elevated ADHD symptoms. Results: Perceived behavioral control independently predicted intention to seek help, and this association was moderated by ethnicity. European American parents' help seeking intentions were more impacted by their perceived behavioral control over possible obstacles. Subjective norms and attitudes were not significantly associated with intention to seek help. AIA parents endorsed lower levels of biopsychosocial etiology beliefs and were less likely to recognize ADHD compared to European American parents. Conclusions: Perceived behavioral control may be more impactful for European American parents than AIA parents. Perceived behavioral control was positively associated with help-seeking in European American parents. AIA parents demonstrated negative associations between all TPB variables and help-seeking intentions, indicating that the TPB or its measure may not adequately address factors affecting help-seeking intentions among AIAs.


Open Access



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