Date of Award

December 2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




Tanya L. Eckert


Cover, Copy, Compare, performance feedback, spelling, Tier 1, writing

Subject Categories

Social and Behavioral Sciences


A large proportion of students in the United States are performing below the proficient level in writing (National Center for Education Statistics, 2012) and a key component in enhancing writing quality is proficient spelling skills (Berninger, 1999). Unfortunately, explicit and developmentally-appropriate spelling instruction is neglected in elementary school classrooms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the combination of two empirically-based interventions on third-grade students’ spelling and writing performance. A total of 54 third- grade students were randomly assigned to either (a) Cover, Copy, Compare + performance feedback condition, or (b) performance feedback only condition. Results of the study indicated that students in both conditions demonstrated similar improvements in their spelling and writing performance on the post-intervention writing probe after controlling for their pre-intervention performance. However, there were no statistically significant differences in students’ performance between the two conditions. In the context of a spelling test, statistically significant differences were observed between conditions, with students assigned to the Cover, Copy, Compare + performance feedback condition demonstrating greater spelling accuracy; however, this effect was moderated by students’ pre-intervention performance. Implications for developing integrative writing interventions that target writing and spelling are discussed

Keywords: spelling, written expression, Cover, Copy, Compare, performance feedback


Open Access



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