The formation of vortex loops (global cosmic strings) in an O(2) linear sigma model in three spatial dimensions is analyzed numerically. For over-damped Langevin dynamics we find that defect production is suppressed by an interaction between correlated domains that reduces the effective spatial variation of the phase of the order field. The degree of suppression is sensitive to the quench rate. A detailed description of the numerical methods used to analyze the model is also reported.
Bowick, Mark; Cacciuto, Angelo; and Travesset, Alex, "The Formation of Vortex Loops (Strings) in Continuous Phase Transitions" (2001). Physics - All Scholarship. 157.
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