Toroidal templates such as vesicles with hexatic bond orientational order are discussed. The total energy including disclination charges is explicitly computed for hexatic order embedded in a toroidal geometry. Related results apply for tilt or nematic order on the torus in the one Frank constant approximation. Although there is no topological necessity for defects in the ground state, we find that excess disclination defects are nevertheless energetically favored for fat torii or moderate vesicle sizes. Some experimental consequences are discussed.
Bowick, Mark; Nelson, David R.; and Travesset, Alex, "Curvature-Induced Defect Unbinding in Toroidal Geometries" (2003). Physics. 153.
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