Document Type





knowledge representation, organization of information, knowledge modeling, interactive media, video games




Computer Sciences | Game Design | Library and Information Science


In this paper, we describe a conceptual model for video games and interactive media. Existing conceptual models such as the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) are not adequate to represent the unique descriptive attributes, levels of variance, and relationships among video games. Previous video game-specific models tend to focus on the development of video games and their technical aspects. Our model instead attempts to reflect how users such as game players, collectors, and scholars understand video games and the relationships among them. We specifically consider use cases of gamers, with future intentions of using this conceptual model as a foundation for developing a union catalog for various libraries and museums. In the process of developing the model, we encountered many challenges, including conceptual overlap and divergence from FRBR, entity scoping, complex relationships among entities, and to the question of how to model additional content for game expansion. Future work will focus on making this model interoperable with existing ontologies as well as further understanding and description of content and relationships.

Additional Information

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article:

Jett, J., Sacchi, S., Lee, J. H. and Clarke, R. I. (2016), "A conceptual model for video games and interactive media." Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, 67: 505–517.

This article has been published in final form at It may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.