Date of Award

May 2018

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mass Communications


T. Makana Chock


Cross-media research, Cross-national comparisons, Experiential journalism, Model of Interactive New Consumption Across Media, Presence, perceived effects on self and others, memory, emotion, arousal, attention, sharing behaviors, perceived self-relevance, Virtual Reality

Subject Categories

Social and Behavioral Sciences


This research has three overarching purposes. First, this dissertation aimed to test VR’s capability as a news medium compared to TV and Web. Second, this research attempted to identify differences in Koreans and the U.S. respondents to VR news, TV news, and Web news. Third, this formulated a theoretical model regarding media user’s news information processing across VR, TV, and Web: Model of Interactive News Consumption Across Media (MINCAM). A 2 x 2 x 3 mixed design study was conducted using the between-subjects factors of country (Korea/the U.S.) and story proximity (Seoul, Korea/Syracuse, New York) as well as the within-subjects factors of level of interactivity (Web/TV/VR) and story arousal (Relic/Airport/Gunshot).

Outcomes indicated that VR news resulted in higher levels of presence, attention, sharing behaviors, arousal, pleasant activated emotion, perceived effects on self, perceived effects on others, interactivity, and perceived self-relevance than TV news or Web news. Comparisons demonstrated that Korean subjects showed greater affect intensity and memory than the U.S. participants. MINCAM in VR demonstrated that enhanced presence uniquely influenced Pleasant Activated domain of emotion unlike MINCAM in TV or Web. Also, in the case of MINCAM in VR, enhanced level of Pleasant Deactivated domain of affect decreased perceived effects on self while MINCAM in TV or Web didn’t have the significant path.

This study found that VR’s versatile talents to enhance various effects on the viewers can at least complement TV or Web across the nations. This would be a stepping stone for media scholars to build related theories about VR. Also, this dissertation provides helpful advice to media practitioners. If affordability and availability of VR are improved, it has the potential to be the mainstream news medium. This study suggests a ground for the decision making.


Open Access