Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Yanhong Liu

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The present study used a path analysis to examine the direct and indirect effects of perceived support, cultural humility, and self-compassion as acculturation conditional variables on Asian international counseling students’ psychological well-being and how the relationships mediated by ethnic identity. The study was based on Acculturation Theory which captured the relationships between acculturation conditions, orientations, and outcomes by Arends-Tóth and Van de Vijver (2007) from a protective and strength-based perspective. The final sample, following criteria and snowball sampling, included 83 Asian international students enrolled in counseling programs. The study employed validated and reliable instruments to measure the different levels of acculturation condition and outcome: The Index of Sojourner Social Support (ISSS; Ong and Ward, 2005), The Multidimensional Cultural Humility Scale (MCHS; Gonzalez et al., 2021), Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF; Raes et al., 2011), The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R; Phinney & Ong, 2007), and Psychological Wellbeing Scale (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Results revealed that perceived support and self-compassion had direct effects on Asian international counseling students’ psychological well-being, and perceived support and cultural humility both had significant indirect effects on the students’ psychological well-being through ethnic identity mediation. Two mediation models were further tested, considering potential multicollinearity between cultural humility and self-compassion. In the separate mediation models, cultural humility showed direct and indirect effects on psychological well-being through ethnic identity, whereas self-compassion did not show indirect effects on psychological well-being through ethnic identity. I discussed limitations, methodological highlights, and contributions, along with implications for future research and counselor education.


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