Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mass Communications


Makana Chock


Advertising message framing;Construal level theory;Influencer marketing;Influencer type;Psychological distance;Self-concept

Subject Categories

Communication | Social and Behavioral Sciences


The increasing prevalence of social media endorsers has made their images and online content pivotal to enhancing advertising effectiveness. However, little attention has been paid to the theoretical and empirical aspects of message framing in the context of endorsers. In light of this gap, this study draws on construal level theory to investigate how endorser type (mega- vs. nano-influencer) and ad message type (abstract vs. concrete) impact consumer responses. To empirically examine these relationships, an online experiment was conducted with a two (endorser types: mega- vs. nano-influencer) x two (ad message type: abstract vs. concrete) between-subjects design on 436 participants recruited from Prolific, an online recruitment platform used for scientific research. The findings showed an interaction effect between endorser type and the message type on consumer attitudes towards the brand attitudes. Specifically, when shown an abstract ad message, participants had more positive brand attitudes toward mega-influencer ads than nano- influencer ads. Conversely, when presented with a concrete ad message, participants reported more favorable attitudes towards the brand when the ad was endorsed by a nano-influencer rather than a mega-influencer. The interaction effect was also significant for purchase intention, as participants exposed to the abstract ad message had higher purchase intentions for ads endorsed by mega-influencers than nano-influencers. However, the concrete ad message did not make a significant difference. Furthermore, the study showed that the effect of the endorser type and message type on consumer responses is mediated by processing fluency. Specifically, the congruence between endorser type and message type improves processing fluency and consumer response. The theoretical implications of the current findings are discussed in light of construal level theory, self-concept, and influencer marketing literature. The practical implications of these findings are also discussed, providing insights for marketers to optimize the use of endorsers to enhance advertising effectiveness.


Open Access

Available for download on Saturday, August 02, 2025