Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Young Moon


cyber attacks, cybermanufacturing systems, resilience


Cyber-manufacturing systems (CMS) are interconnected production environments comprised of complex and networked cyber-physical systems (CPS) that can be instantiated across one or many locations. However, this vision of manufacturing environments ushers in the challenge of addressing new security threats to production systems that still contain traditional closed legacy elements. The widespread adoption of CMS has come with a dramatic increase in successful cyber-attacks. With a myriad of new targets and vulnerabilities, hackers have been able to cause significant economic losses by disrupting manufacturing operations, reducing outgoing product quality, and altering product designs. This research aims to contribute to the design of more resilient cyber-manufacturing systems. Traditional cybersecurity mechanisms focus on preventing the occurrence of cyber-attacks, improving the accuracy of detection, and increasing the speed of recovery. More often neglected is addressing how to respond to a successful attack during the time from the attack onset until the system recovery. We propose a novel approach that correlates the state of production and the timing of the attack to predict the effect on the manufacturing key performance indicators. Then a real-time decision strategy is deployed to select the appropriate response to maintain availability, utilization efficiency, and a quality ratio above degradation thresholds until recovery. Our goal is to demonstrate that the operational resilience of CMS can be enhanced such that the system will be able to withstand the advent of cyber-attacks while remaining operationally resilient. This research presents a novel framework to enhance the operational resilience of cyber-manufacturing systems against cyber-attacks. In contrast to other CPS where the general goal of operational resilience is to maintain a certain target level of availability, we propose a manufacturing-centric approach in which we utilize production key performance indicators as targets. This way we adopt a decision-making process for security in a way that is aligned with the operational strategy and bound to the socio-economic constraints inherent to manufacturing. Our proposed framework consists of four steps: 1) Identify: map CMS production goals, vulnerabilities, and resilience-enhancing mechanisms; 2) Establish: set targets of performance in production output, scrap rate, and downtime at different states; 3) Select: determine which mechanisms are needed and their triggering strategy, and 4) Deploy: integrate into the operation of the CMS the selected mechanisms, threat severity evaluation, and activation strategy. Lastly, we demonstrate via experimentation on a CMS testbed that this framework can effectively enhance the operational resilience of a CMS against a known cyber-attack.


Open Access