Date of Award

Spring 5-15-2022

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling and Human Services


Liu, Yanhong


ecological school counseling, educational leadership, intersectionality, multicultural competence, school counseling leadership, school counseling leadership practice

Subject Categories

Education | Student Counseling and Personnel Services


School counseling leadership is essential in addressing systemic inequities and barriers that negatively impact students' personal/social, academic, and college and career development. The American School Counseling Association has long-identified school counseling leadership as a cornerstone and has primarily operationalized this construct through program implementation. As such, the profession's empirical understanding of school counseling leadership is still in its infancy. Specifically, there is a dearth of literature that has conceptually or empirically identified or examined the individual and systemic factors, specifically through an ecological lens, that influence school counselors' leadership. Thus, using hierarchical regression analysis, this study examined the relationship between sociocultural factors (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, childhood socioeconomic status, current socioeconomic status, and age), interactions between sociocultural factors, professional developmental experiences (i.e., leadership experience, leadership training received, supervision received, mentorship received), intra- and interpersonal factors (i.e., leadership self-efficacy, multicultural competence, psychological empowerment), and school climate as a systemic factor and the leadership practices of school counselors. Results from the analyses of 647 school counselors revealed that sociocultural factors, interactions between sociocultural factors, professional developmental experiences, and intra- and interpersonal factors significantly predicted the leadership practices of school counselors. Conversely, school climate was not found to be significantly influential on school counselors' leadership practices. Implications for counselor education, school counselors, and future research are discussed.


Open Access