Date of Award

Summer 7-16-2021

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Instructional Design, Development and Evaluation


Koszalka, Tiffany A.


Advance Organizer, Axiology, Epistemology, Ontology, Paradigms, Philosophical assumptions

Subject Categories

Cognitive Psychology | Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Novice researchers lack an understanding of philosophical assumptions, paradigms, and praxis (3Ps) and their relationships with each other in research. As a result, the lack of understanding and application of the 3Ps components by novice researchers undermines confidence in the rigor and trustworthiness of their research. This study focused on filling this gap by providing a learning tool (Advance Organizer – AO) that contributes to developing knowledge of 3Ps in novice researchers. To achieve this, a two phased study was conducted. The first phase used a Delphi technique to collect data of the design of the AO in three rounds with instructional design experts, while the second phase, used semi-structured interviews with novice researchers to conduct a user test of the AO.Phase 1 produced evidence from instructional design experts that the principles of multimedia learning (i.e., coherence, signaling, spatial contiguity, segmenting, pre-training, modality, multimedia, personalization) have been used to a great extent in 3Ps AO. This reduced the external cognitive load, the management of the intrinsic cognitive load, and an increase in the germane cognitive load. Instructional design experts have also voiced their opinion of the 3Ps AO as a helpful learning tool for novice researchers. The results of phase 2 revealed that novice researchers, with either lower or higher experiences in research, faced challenges in understanding the 3Ps of the research. They described these components interchangeably and in unstructured ways, sometimes incorrectly. After reviewing the 3Ps learning tool, novices showed positive impressions and results during final conversations about the 3Ps. In short, instructional design experts and novice researchers alike expressed that the 3Ps AO is a helpful learning.


Open Access