The satisfiability and optimization of finite-dimensional Boolean formulas are studied using percolation theory, rare region arguments, and boundary effects. In contrast with mean-field results, there is no satisfiability transition, though there is a logical connectivity transition. In part of the disconnected phase, rare regions lead to a divergent running time for optimization algorithms. The thermodynamic ground state for the NP-hard two-dimensional maximum-satisfiability problem is typically unique. These results have implications for the computational study of disordered materials.
Middleton, Alan and Schwarz, J. M., "Percolation of Satisfiability in Finite Dimensions" (2003). Physics. Paper 189.
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