In United States v. Dinero Express, Inc., the Second Circuit Court of Appeals was required to decide whether the remittance scheme, viewed as an entire process, qualifies as "transfer" under § 1956(a), despite the fact no money was wired from the United States to the Dominican Republic. The Court of Appeals affirmed the trial court's holding stating that the actions of defendant qualified as a "transfer."
Hill, Rebecca E.
"2003-2004 Survey of International Law in the Second: International Money Laundering Statue,"
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce: Vol. 31
, Article 8.
Available at: http://surface.syr.edu/jilc/vol31/iss2/8