Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics


Amanda Brown


CLT;Codeswitching;Language classrooms;Language Pedagogy;Multilingualism;Research Methodology

Subject Categories

Linguistics | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Multilingual approaches in second language (SL) classrooms, where learners use first language (L1) or any other known language beside the target language (TL), is an issue of ongoing research. While various research methods like word analysis, time analysis, and classroom observation exist, a standardized approach to measuring language use is lacking. Examining the same data set, this study analyzed the frequency of L1 English and TL Arabic use in two language classes through three methods: word count, time analysis, and impressionistic judgments from live observations and made comparisons of results generated by three methods as well as the feasibility. Focusing only on whole-class discussions, video recordings were transcribed, then words were counted in each language. Time was stamped every 5 seconds using Mangold INTERACT software, and observation data from Brown (2023) were analyzed to calculate majority/minority language use. The labor time spent using each method was also recorded for a feasibility analysis. Results showed that each method captured different levels of language use, but all indicated Arabic as the predominant language and that the method of counting words was the most time-consuming method. This study provides a valuable tool for researchers, encouraging their consideration of different language measurement methods for robust comparisons and meta-analyses such that the results of their research have optimal outcomes for future pedagogy.


Open Access

Included in

Linguistics Commons



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