Document Type



January 2011


Social and Behavioral Sciences


Structural equation modeling analyses of data from a longitudinal study of elementary students (N=5094) examined the relationships and pathways among individual characteristics of students and teachers at the beginning of 3rd grade to student achievement at the end of 3rd and 5th grade. The proposed model for predicting student outcomes provided a good fit to the data. The results demonstrated that the level of 3rd grade students’ learning motivation and social skills and teachers’ positive attitude at the beginning of school year were significant predictors of student academic achievement at the end of 3rd grade. Students’ perceived competence and their academic achievement during 3rd grade were strong predictors of their academic achievement in the 5th grade. These results highlighted the role of teachers’ efficacy beliefs, which facilitate students’ academic achievement by impacting teachers’ attitude directly and by increasing indirectly their instructional planning

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