Reliability and validity of the Greek Rituals Questionnaire: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic studies, and the GRQ's relationship to group identification

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Barbara H. Fiese


Ritual, Sororities, Greek Rituals Questionnaire, Group identification

Subject Categories

Education | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences | Social Psychology


Ritualized behaviors are meaningful for those who enact them; have been demonstrated to serve a protective function during transitional periods; and are believed to reinforce the shared identity of group members (Fiese, 1992; 1995; Reiss, 1981; Wolin & Bennett, 1984). This psychometric study examined the extent to which the Family Routines Questionnaire (FRQ; Fiese & Kline, 1993) was applicable to studying social groups (i.e., sororities). A total of 264 sorority members completed self-report questionnaires about sorority rituals, perceptions of their sorority environment, and level of identification with their sorority. As this was the first adaptation of the FRQ to a non-family group, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses examined the factor structure of the Greek Rituals Questionnaire (GRQ). The GRQ evidenced adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and displayed a factor structure comparable to that of the FRQ. The GRQ demonstrated two factors (ritual meaning and routine) that correlated with the Group Environment Scale thus providing preliminary construct validation of the GRQ. Additionally, the GRQ ritual meaning factor positively correlated with degree of group identification assessed by the Group Identification Scale. Thus, there is evidence to support the adaptation of the FRQ to non-family social groups. A discussion of the findings is presented within the context of how the study of rituals in non-family groups may provide information regarding individual adjustment and the importance of family of origin experiences in individual development, as well as providing a call to use ritual theory to understand the study of social groups.