Training teachers to use managerial scripts: A method for improving children's classroom behavior

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Teaching and Leadership


Brian Martens


Training teachers, method for improving children's classroom behavior

Subject Categories

Curriculum and Instruction | Pre-Elementary, Early Childhood, Kindergarten Teacher Education | Teacher Education and Professional Development


The present study examined preschool teachers' use of managerial and instructional strategies including demanded eye contact, signaling, step-by-step directions paired with modeling, specific verbal praise, and redirectives/reprimands. Four teachers were trained to implement these strategies in a prescribed sequence within a 10-14 minute classroom activity with a small group of children (3-4 per teacher). After training, the teachers were given implementation scripts to promote treatment integrity and generalization.

Effects of the training and scripts on teacher and child behavior were examined using a counterbalanced multiple baseline design across teachers. Results showed that all of the teachers implemented the intervention with higher levels of integrity when using the scripts, and also used more instructional statements, modeling, and praise during the intervention phases in comparison to baseline. Follow up observations conducted one month later showed that the teachers continued to use the managerial sequence with high levels of integrity. The intervention was also effective at increasing the children's levels of appropriate behavior. Implications of the managerial sequence and scripts for group instruction in the preschool setting and teacher training are discussed.