We report a comprehensive analysis of the ground state properties of axisymmetric toroidal crystals based on the elastic theory of defects on curved substrates. The ground state is analyzed as a function of the aspect ratio of the torus, which provides a non-local measure of the underlying Gaussian curvature, and the ratio of the defect core-energy to the Young modulus. Several structural features are discussed,including a spectacular example of curvature-driven amorphization in the limit of the aspect ratio approaching one. The outcome of the elastic theory is then compared with the results of a numerical study of a system of point-like particles constrained on the surface of a torus and interacting via a short range potential.
Bowick, Mark and Giomi, Luca, "Elastic Theory of Defects in Toroidal Crystals" (2008). Physics. 140.
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