Eicosapentaenoic Acid Protects against Metabolic Impairments in the APPswe/PS1dE9 Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model


Latha RamalingamFollow


Latha Ramalingam: 0000-0002-4856-7327

Document Type





APP/PS1 mouse model, Alzheimer’s disease, EPA, amyloid-beta, obesity.


Molecular, Genetic, and Biochemical Nutrition


Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques. Systemic inflammation and obesity may exacerbate AD pathogenesis. We previously reported anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity effects of EPA in mice.

Objectives: We aimed to determine whether EPA reduces obesity-associated metabolic dysfunctions and Aβ accumulation in AD amyloidogenic mice.

Methods: Two-mo-old APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic (TG) mice and non-TG littermates were randomly assigned to low fat (LF; 10% kcal fat), high fat (HF; 45% kcal fat), or EPA (36 g/kg)-supplemented HF diets. Body composition, glucose tolerance, and energy expenditure were measured, and serum and brain metabolic markers were tested 38 wk postintervention. Outcomes were statistically analyzed via 3-factor ANOVA, modeling genotype, sex, and diet interactions.

Results: HF-fed males gained more weight than females (Δ = 61 mg; P < 0.001). Compared with LF, HF increased body weights of wild-type (WT) males (Δ = 31 mg; P < 0.001). EPA reduced HF-induced weight gain in WT males (Δ = 24 mg; P = 0.054) but not in females. HF mice showed decreased glucose clearance and respiratory energy compared with LF-fed groups (Δ = -1.31 g/dL; P < 0.001), with no significant effects of EPA. However, EPA conferred metabolic improvements by decreasing serum leptin and insulin (Δ = -2.51 g/mL and Δ = -0.694 ng/mL, respectively compared with HF, P ≤ 0.05) and increasing adiponectin (Δ = 21.6 ng/mL; P < 0.001). As we expected, TG mice expressed higher serum and brain Aβ than WT mice (Δ = 0.131 ng/mL; P < 0.001 and Δ = 0.56%; P < 0.01, respectively), and EPA reduced serum Aβ1-40 in TG males compared with HF (Δ = 0.053 ng/mL; P ≤ 0.05).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report that EPA reduces serum Aβ1-40 in obese AD male mice, warranting further investigations into tissue-specific mechanisms of EPA in AD.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.