Title

Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

Date of Award

2010

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Physics

Advisor(s)

Andrzej Krol

Second Advisor

Edward Lipson

Keywords

Breast biopsy, Dynamic image series, Breast cancer, GD-DTPA contrast, Nonlinear curve fitting

Subject Categories

Physics

Abstract

This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities.

Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression algorithm. The best-fit parameters were used to create 3D parametric images. Compartmental modeling evaluation was based on the ability of parameter values to differentiate between tissue types. This evaluation was used on registered and unregistered image series and found that registration improved results. (5) PET and MR parametric images were registered through FEM- and FFD-based registration. Parametric image registration was evaluated using similarity measurements, target registration error, and qualitative comparison. Comparing FFD and FEM-based registration results showed that the FEM method is superior.

This five-step process constitutes a novel multifaceted approach to a nonsurgical breast biopsy that successfully executes each step. Comparison of this method to biopsy still needs to be done with a larger set of subject data.

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