We generalize the coset construction of Callan, Coleman, Wess and Zumino to theories in which the Lorentz group is spontaneously broken down to one of its subgroups. This allows us to write down the most general low-energy effective Lagrangian in which Lorentz invariance is non-linearly realized, and to explore the consequences of broken Lorentz symmetry without having to make any assumptions about the mechanism that triggers the breaking. We carry out the construction both in flat space, in which the Lorentz group is a global spacetime symmetry, and in a generally covariant theory, in which the Lorentz group can be treated as a local internal symmetry. As an illustration of this formalism, we construct the most general effective field theory in which the rotation group remains unbroken, and show that the latter is just the Einstein-aether theory.
Armendariz-Picon, Christian; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; and Penco, Riccardo, "Effective Theory Approach to the Spontaneous Breakdown of Lorentz Invariance" (2010). Physics. Paper 211.
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