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Abstract

The international pharmaceutical trade is important to both exporting and importing countries. Exporting countries are concerned with maintaining and further expanding their foreign pharmaceutical markets.1 Importing countries, especially developing or less developed countries (LDC's),2 are concerned with the price and quality of drugs that they import.3 Poor and newly independent states that have no pharmaceutical industry of their own are the most vulnerable in the international pharmaceutical trade. They must rely on exports from the more developed nations. The likelihood of these LDC's importing drugs of unacceptable quality. is high6 because they usually buy at the lowest prices available and have no reliable quality control systems of their own.7 These LDC's are also greatly disadvantaged in their negotiations with the multinational corporations (MNC's)8 that manufacture pharmaceutical products.

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