Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm, PSO, hill climbing, optimization problems
This paper describes a successful adaptation of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to discrete optimization problems. In the proposed algorithm, particles cycle through multiple phases with differing goals. We also exploit hill climbing. On benchmark problems, this algorithm outperforms a genetic algorithm and a previous discrete PSO formulation.
Al-kazemi, Buthainah Sabeeh No'man and Mohan, Chilukuri K., "Multi-phase discrete particle swarm optimization" (2000). Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Paper 54.