Development and initial validation of a measure of counselor supervisor self-efficacy

Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling and Human Services


Alan D. Goldberg


Counselor supervisor, Self-efficacy, Supervision

Subject Categories

Student Counseling and Personnel Services | Teacher Education and Professional Development


Self-efficacy, or one's beliefs about her or his capabilities to perform specific tasks, is critical to understanding individual behavior and motivation. Despite the tremendous potential impact that counselor supervisors have on the development of their supervisees, little is known about the nature of counselor supervisor self-efficacy and its influence on the supervision process. A psychometrically sound operationalization of supervisor self-efficacy is necessary to understand the nature of the construct. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to develop and provide initial evidence of validity of a measure of counselor supervisor self-efficacy, The Counselor Supervisor Self-Efficacy Scale (CSSES). Development and initial validation of the CSSES proceeded using a sequential and rational approach grounded in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. Results indicated that the 39-item CSSES possesses six factors: Theories and Techniques, Group Supervision, Supervisory Ethics, Self in Supervision, Multicultural Competence, and Knowledge of Legal Issues. A second order factor analysis revealed a single underlying factor, Supervisor Self-Efficacy. The CSSES also appears to possess initial construct validity, as most CSSES total and factors scores positively correlated with levels of supervisor development, experience, and education. Reliability data also revealed that the CSSES and its factors have adequate evidence of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Implications for the study, practice, and training of counselor supervisors were highlighted and suggestions for future research were reviewed.


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