Date of Award

5-2012

Degree Type

Dissertation

Embargo Date

3-2-2013

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Chemistry

Advisor(s)

Karin Ruhlandt

Second Advisor

Jon A. Zubieta

Keywords

Alkaline earth metal, Bone scaffold, Crystallization, Metal Organic Framework, Phosphonates, X-ray crystallography

Subject Categories

Chemistry

Abstract

The work presented herein describes synthetic methodologies leading to the design of a wide array of magnesium and calcium based phosphinate and phosphonates with possible applications as bone scaffolding materials or additives to bone cements. The challenge to the chemistry of the alkaline earth phosphonate target compounds includes poor solubility of compounds, and poorly understood details on the control of the metal's coordination environment. Hence, less is known on phosphonate based alkaline earth metal organic frameworks as compared to transition metal phosphonates. Factors governing the challenges in obtaining crystalline, well-defined magnesium and calcium solids lie in the large metal diameters, the absence of energetically available d-orbitals to direct metal geometry, as well as the overall weakness of the metal-ligand bonds.

A significant part of this project was concerned with the development of suitable reaction conditions to obtain X-ray quality crystals of the reaction products to allow for structural elucidation of the novel compounds. Various methodologies to aid in crystal growth including hydrothermal methods and gel crystallization were employed.

We have used phosphinate and phosphonate ligands with different number of phosphorus oxygen atoms as well as diphosphonates with different linker lengths to determine their effects on the overall structural features. An interesting correlation is observed between the dimensionality of products and the increasing number of donor oxygen atoms in the ligands as we progress from phosphinic acid to the phosphorous acids. As an example, monophosphinate ligand only yielded one-dimensional compounds, whereas the phosphonates crystallize as one and two-dimensional compounds, and the di- and triphosphonate based compounds display two or three-dimensional geometries.

This thesis provides a selection of calcium and magnesium compounds with one-dimensional geometry, as represented in a calcium phosphinate to novel two-dimensional sheets of magnesium and pillared calcium phosphonates. The preparation of these novel compounds has led to the establishment of synthetic protocols that allow for the direct preparation of compounds with defined structural features.

Access

Open Access

Included in

Chemistry Commons

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