In 1893, Irene Ninni published a succinct account of a large but little-known group of Venetian women called impiraressa or bead stringers whose task it was to thread the glass beads produced on Murano and form them into hanks for the world market. The original Italian text is provided, along with an English translation. Two late 19th-century paintings by John Singer Sargent provide a rare glimpse of the bead stringers at work.
The Society of Bead Researchers is a non-profit scientific-educational corporation founded in 1981 to foster historical, archaeological, and material cultural research on beads and beadwork of all materials and periods, and to expedite the dissemination of the resultant knowledge. Membership is open to all persons involved in the study of beads, as well as those interested in keeping abreast of current trends in bead research.
"L'Impiraressa: The Venetian Bead Stringer."
BEADS: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers
3: 73-82. Available at: