In August of 1690, a fleet of ships under the command of Sir William Phips set sail from Boston to attack Quebec City during the second year of King William's War. The campaign failed and, as the fleet retreated, a number of vessels were wrecked in the St. Lawrence during a violent storm. The remains of one of these was discovered by a diver in a cove at l'Anse aux Bouleaux, Quebec, in 1994. Believed to be the Elizabeth and Mary, the wreck yielded numerous artifacts, including a wide array of weaponry. Among the long arms was a musket whose stock was decorated on either side with two crosses created by inserting wampum into holes drilled into the wood. Likely the property of a Praying Indian, this unique weapon is described in detail and comparisons made to other contemporary Native American objects decorated in a similar manner.
The Society of Bead Researchers is a non-profit scientific-educational corporation founded in 1981 to foster historical, archaeological, and material cultural research on beads and beadwork of all materials and periods, and to expedite the dissemination of the resultant knowledge. Membership is open to all persons involved in the study of beads, as well as those interested in keeping abreast of current trends in bead research.
Bradley, Charles and Karklins, Karlis
"A Wampum-Inlaid Musket from the 1690 Phips' Shipwreck."
BEADS: Journal of the Society of Bead Researchers
24: 91-97. Available at: